There are those who question whether or not Yeshua kept His Seder the night before the Pharisees kept theirs. They tend to focus their argument in the book of Yokhanan, as his is very vague in the timing. Yokhanan wrote his gospel very late, after all the ‘synoptic’ gospels were written. It seems he did not so much do an obvious timeline, other than mentioning all the feasts repeatedly. He focused on the feasts, in fact, in recounting the B’sorah, and deditcated much of his account to the Pesakh itself, starting in chapter 13 and going all the way through chapter 20.
The synoptic gospels do give us a timeline. A very detailed one. But, we have to mete it out, comparing each account, in order to understand fully the events.
I wish I had time to dedicate to an exhaustive study of it, but will do my best to present our argument, without detailing the other argument, as I’m certain you already have that.
Below this article is a table I made long ago to track all the verses about the timing of Pesakh. [you might copy/paste into landscape to make it arrange better.]
Basically, what we end up with is this:
Yeshua went into Jerusalem on day 10 of the first Khodesh [Nisan], to be inspected by the Rabbis as the Pesakh [Lamb].
When Pesakh/Matzot [interchangeable terms for the whole SEVEN days] was approaching, which is Erev 14 of the khodesh, in THREE accounts [a matter shall be established by the testimony of two or three witnesses] the Talmidim asked Yeshua, “WHERE DO YOU WANT TO EAT THE PESAKH?”
Right away, this destroys the argument that Yeshua did NOT EAT the PESAKH, simply because the Rabbis ate theirs on the 15th as they still do today. If Yeshua did not have a Pesakh the night before, the Talmidim LIED in our gospels.
The table starts in these chapters, when dealing with the timing of Pesakh: Matai 21, Yokhanan Markos 11, Luka 19, Yokhanan 12. From there to the verses I will start with is detailed the four days of the inspection of the Lamb Yeshua from Erev 01/10 UP TO 01/14. If you go BEYOND EREV 01/14, that would be a FIVE DAY inspection of the Lamb, when Shemot CLEARLY says UP UNTIL [and not into] day 14 [Shemot 12:3, 6]: that’s days 10, 11, 12 and 13. I hope you can see this is what is occuring in those chapters by the table at the bottom.
From there, the verses I will focus on first are these:
Yokhanan Markos: 14:12-18
Luka: 22:1, 7-8, 13-16
Yokhanan 13:1-2, 29
In Matai, We have these statements:
On the first day of Matzot, the Talmidim came up to Yeshua and said to Him, “Where do you wish that we may prepare the Pesakh for you to eat?” And He said to them, “Go into the city to a certain man, and say to him, ‘Adoneinu says, ‘My time has come, I will observe the Pesakh with my Talmidim at your house.”” [Not in the Temple or with the Pharisees on the 15th night] And His Talmidim did as Yeshua had commanded them; and they prepared the Pesakh. [Lamb to eat] 20And when it was evening, He was reclining [eating the Pesakh] with his twelve Talmidim. 21And while they were eating [the Pesakh they had prepared for Him] He said, “Truly I say to you that one of you will betray me.”
In Yokhanan Markos, the wording is tricky for modern Jews because of the Rabbinic teachings hammered into their minds, but, it is actually very simple and clear:
On the first day of Matzot [a SEVEN DAY period BEGINNING on the Evening of the 14th, Shemot 12:15, and going up UNTO the 21st, meaning evenings 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20] , on which the Yehudim [lay people, not P’rushim] sacrifice the Pesakh [lamb], His Talmidim said to Him, “Where do you wish that we go and prepare the Pesakh for you[Yeshua] to eat?” And He sent two of His Talmidim, and said to them, “Go to the city, and behold, you will meet a man carrying a vessel of water; follow him. And wherever he enters, say to the owner of the house, ‘Our master says, ‘Where is the guest chamber where I [Yeshua] may eat the Pesakh with my Talmidim?” And he will show you a large upper room furnished and prepared; there make ready for us.” And His Talmidim went out and came to the city, and they found just as He had told them; and they prepared the Pesakh. And when it was evening [14th], He came with His twelve. And when they were reclining and eating [the Pesakh Lamb they had prepared], Yeshua said, “Truly I say to you, one of you who eats with me will betray me.”
Luka’s account is slightly more detailed, and gives is Seder details very specifically:
Now Khag HaMatzot which is called the Pesakh was at hand.7Then the day of Matzot came, on which it was the custom to kill the Pesakh lamb. [14th] 8So Yeshua sent Kefa and Yokhanan, and said to them, “Go and prepare the Pesakh for us to eat.” 9They said to Him, “Where do you wish us to prepare?” 10He said to them, “Behold, when you enter the city, you will meet a man carrying a waterskin; follow him. And wherever he enters, 11say to the Adon of the house, ‘Adoneinu says, ‘Where is the guest room where I may eat the Pesakh with my Talmidim?” 12And behold, he will show you an upper room, large and furnished; there make ready.” 13And they went and found it just as He had said to them; and they prepared the Pesakh. 14And when it was time, Yeshua came and sat down, and the twelve Shlikhim with Him. 15And He said to them, “I have greatly desired to eat this Pesakh [which they had already prepared] with you before I suffer; 16for I say to you that henceforth I will not eat it until it is fulfilled in Malkhut HaElohim.” 17 [Not in Aramaic Peshitta and other early texts] 18 [Not in Aramaic Peshitta and other early texts] 19And He took bread and gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them and said, “This is my body, which is given for your sake; this do in remembrance of me.” 20And likewise also He took the cup, after they had eaten supper [the Pesakh Lamb they had already prepared], and He said, “This is the cup of the Brit Khadashah in my blood, which is shed for you.”
So, in all of these witnesses, they prepared AND ATE the Pesakh, the Talmidim and Yeshua together. Nothing could be more plain!!!!!
Yokhanan does not give us these details again, as he was the last to write, and knew that three others had already done so. The ONLY thing he says about the timing of the MEAL he details in FIVE CHAPTERS is two verses: verse 1-2:
1Now before Khag HaPesakh, Yeshua knew the hour had come to depart from this world to His Father. He loved His own who were in this world, and He loved them to the end. 2When supper ended, HaSatan put into the heart of Yehudah Ben Shimon of Sekharyotah, to betray Him.
They say that this supper was BEFORE the Khag. THAT is eisegesis, reading INTO the text what one wants to read. The ONLY thing that happened BEFORE the Khag was that Yeshua KNEW His execution was at hand. THAT’S IT! To say the following supper was BEFORE the Khag is IRRESPONSIBLE and BAD LIP READING.
Especially given the fact that at that supper, Yehudah BETRAYED Yeshua. We ALREADY saw in all three previous accounts that Yehudah betrayed Him AT THE PESAKH they had prepared and WERE EATING. How can we ignore three other witnesses to interpet this passage which clearly does not give us a timeline?
Further, they say that the Talmidim thought He sent Yehudah out to buy Matzot for the Khag, thus, the bread they were eating at that supper was not Matzot. Well, they needed Matzot for SIX MORE DAYS, the total seven days of eating Matzot. It was NOT because they were not yet eating it! Further, we KNOW the ACTUAL reason He sent him out anyway. This, too, is eisegesis.
I know the very weak argument some make. They use verse 19 from the Luka account, and verse 13:29 from Yokhanan to assert that Yeshua didn’t eat Matzot, simply because Luka’s account, from the GREEK, used ‘artos’, and they assert this is only leavened bread. Not so. But, you know that we use the Aramaic as primary. The word here in the Aramaic/Hebrew is “Lekhem”, which does indeed mean ‘bread’. But, Matzot is INDEED BREAD! Yeshua is Lekhem HaKhayim [bread of life], which He declared at Pesakh the year before [Yokh 6] and HE is CERTAINLY UNLEAVENED. Further, D’varim 16 calls the Matzot of Pesakh, “לֶחֶם עֹנִי” , the “BREAD of Affliction.”
The P’rushim Rabbis have seemed altogether to ignore D’varim 16:
1“Observe the Khodesh of The Aviv, and keep the Pesakh unto יהוה your Elohim; for in the Khodesh of The Aviv, יהוה your Elohim brought you forth out of Mitzrayim by night. 2And you shall sacrifice the Pesakh offering unto יהוה your Elohim, of the flock and the herd, in the place which יהוה shall choose to cause His Name to dwell there. 3You shall eat no khametz with it; seven days [not nine, as the Rabbis teach] shall you eat Matzot therewith, even the bread of affliction; [Matzot IS BREAD/ARTOS] for in haste did you come forth out of the land of Mitzrayim; that you may remember the day when you came forth out of the land of Mitzrayim all the days of your life. 4And there shall be no khametz seen with you in all your borders seven days; neither shall any of the meat, which you sacrifice the first day at evening, remain all night until the morning. 5You may not sacrifice the Pesakh offering within any of your gates, which יהוה your Elohim gives you; 6but at the place which יהוה your Elohim shall choose to cause His Name to dwell in, there you shall sacrifice the Pesakh offering at dusk, at the going down of the sun, [CLEARLY NOT at 3:00 PM as the P’rushim did, when Yeshua was EXECUTED BY THEM] at the season that you came forth out of Mitzrayim. 7And you shall roast and eat it in the place which יהוה your Elohim shall choose; and you shall turn in the morning, and go unto your tents. 8Six days you shall eat Matzot; and on the seventh day shall be a consecrated assembly to יהוה your Elohim; you shall do no work therein.”
So, combining Luka 22:19 and Yokhanan 13:29 is a very, very weak argument. They tie to it the Psalm Yeshua quoted in 13:18, “He who eats bread with me has lifted up his heel against me,” saying this wasn’t Matzah either. But, again, Matzah IS BREAD. True, not all Lekhem is Matzah, but Matzah is yet Lekhem. Further, that verse does not address the bread they ate that night.
What Yeshua said there was: אוֹכֵל לַחְמִי הִגְדִּיל עָלַי עָקֵב
“The one who eats MY BREAD has lifted up his heel against me”. Yeshua’s bread is clearly UNLEAVENED one could argue, and it would be a better argument.
Yokhanan details the meal SO MUCH, without going into the timing of it. But, at the end of the meal, in Chapter 18, they cross the brook. This was on the way to Har HaZetim. THIS is when they sang the Hallel, which is what we ALL do AFTER the Seder!
In the Luka account, it was the ‘cup after supper’ that Yeshua used to declare our redemption in the Renewed Covenant. We all know that is the THIRD CUP of the Seder, the CUP OF REDEMPTION.
And then they sang the Hallel [Ps 113-118]. We see this in the Matai and Yokhanan Markos accounts:
30And they sang the Hallel, and went out to Har HaZetim.
26And they sang the Hallel, and went out to Har HaZetim.
Luka and Yokhanan do not give us that detail, but they BOTH say they went to the Mount:
39And He came out and went away, as it was His custom, to Har Beit HaZetim; and His Talmidim also followed Him. 40And when He arrived at a certain place, He said to them, “Pray that you may not enter into temptation.”
1Yeshua said these things and went out with His Talmidim across the brook Kidron, to a place where there was a garden where He and His Talmidim entered. 2Yehudah the traitor also knew that place, for Yeshua and His Talmidim frequently gathered there.
All of this together shows me that Yeshua kept a Pesakh Seder and then went out to the Mount of Olives. Anything else is irresponsible, and in my view, the spirit of Mashi’akh HaSheker.
Why do people try to twist the scriptures so?
They whitewash this and say it is for unity’s sake. They WANT to be unified with the Rabbis. These Rabbis executed the King of Glory! THEIR doctrine caused them NOT to SEE their TRUE PESAKH lamb.
Ever consider why Yeshua did not use the Lamb as “This is my Body?”
Was it because He knew there would shortly come a day when our Jewish people could not kill one in order to observe Pesakh? I think so.
Yeshua had His Seder the NIGHT BEFORE the P’rushim, as the Creator had instructed all Jews in Shemot [Exodus] 12, VaYikra [Lev] 23, and D’varim [Deut] 16. There was NO UNITY in Israel in HIS Day!!!! THAT IS ONE REASON He came when He did!
MANY of the Yehudim kept Pesakh with the Talmidim. Did you notice it was the Talmidim who brought it up:
On the first day of Matzot, the Talmidim came up to Yeshua and said to Him, “Where do you wish that we may prepare the Pesakh for you to eat?”
“Where do you wish that we go and prepare the Pesakh for you[Yeshua] to eat?”
The Pharisees had cleary violated scripture, MOVED Pesakh to the night of the 15th, as they still do today, and lengthened the season of Matzot to nine days. This all violates SCRIPTURE, and it is NOT what Yeshua did.
I crave unity in His Body, but will not sacrfice truth for the sake of Jews and the Rabbis. I will unite with Yeshua only, and those who will unite with HIM. I think people worship [value/give credence to] the Rabbis a bit, and want them to be right, ‘for the sake of unity’. “Do NOT follow a multitude into error.”
Just because Yeshua had His Seder the night before, does NOT mean that he then could NOT be The Pesakh Lamb, because it is killed at 3:00 pm the next day! THAT lamb was slain IN ERROR, JUST LIKE YESHUA was! “Sin hung Him on the tree!” D’varim 16 CLEARLY shows us the Pesakh was to be killed at DUSK, AT THE GOING DOWN OF THE SUN, on the EVENING OF THE 14TH DAY! NOT at 3:00 pm on the DAY of the 14th, to eat the lamb on the EVENING/NIGHT of the 15th, as our Jewish people do today.
When are Messianic people going to realize that our beloved Jewish people are blind to His Truth, and have sinned TOGETHER against Messiah, Adon HaKavod, and STILL DO. You CANNOT call someone out of error by getting into error with them.
Yeshua TOOK the authority of the Priesthood from them. HE is our ONE Rabbi. And we will FOLLOW HIM, or be like sheep without a shepherd, which is how most of the believing world is.
|21:1||Approached Jerusalem||11:1||Approached Jerusalem||19:28,41||Toward Jerusalem||12:1||In Bethany 6 days before Pesakh (not clear if another day passed or not)|
|21:10||entered the city||11:11||Entered Jerusalem, returned to Bethany||19:37||From Mt Olives [in Jerusalem]||12:12||The next day (four days before Pesakh) Entered the city|
|21:17||left to Bethany and spent the night||20:1||One of the days|
|21:18||returned to Jerusalem the next morning||11:12||The next day|
|22:15||Having “gone”||11:15||Into Jerusalem|
|22:23||On that day|
|22:46||From that day|
|11:19||Evening left the city|
|13:1||Leaves the temple|
|26:1||“it came to pass”||13:3||On the mount olives|
|26:2||“after two days WILL BE the Passover”||14:1||And it WAS the Passover, and unleavened bread after two days.|
|26:6||Anointed in Bethany||14:3||In Bethany (again) anointed, reclining (eating)|
|26:17||Beginning of matzah! “Where do YOU [Yeshua] want to eat the PASSOVER?!”||14:12||On the first day of MATZAH! When the Pesakh Lamb is sacrificed (Nisan 14). “Where do you want to eat the PASSOVER”!||22:1|
|Matzah approaching!, the one called Pesakh!|
Came the DAY OF Matzah, of sacrifice of Paskhal
|26:18||“I will observe the Passover with my Disciples”.||22:8||Prepare for us the PASSOVER||13:1||before Passover he “knew”|
|26:19||They prepared PASSOVER||14:16||They prepared THE PASSOVER.||22:13||Prepared the PASSOVER|
|26:20||Evening, reclining to eat [Passover]||14:17,18||Evening, reclining and eating||22:14-16||Will not eat it AGAIN until the kingdom comes!|
And while eating, He said “I have Desired to eat THIS PASSOVER [which they were eating]
|Supper taking place|
Buy for holiday unleavened bread coming up!
|26:30||Sung Hallel, Passover custom! Went to Mount Olive||14:26||Sung Hallel, went to Mount of Olives||22:39||Went to mount||14:31|
In the garden
|26:34||In THIS NIGHT you’ll deny me||14:30||THIS NIGHT you’ll deny me||22:58-59||A little time and an hour passes|
|27:1||Morning came||15:1||Immediate Morning delivered to Pilate||22:66|
|Became day; delivered to Pilate|
Herod in Jerusalem
|18:28||Morning came [Pharisees kill lamb on 14, but eat Passover that evening on 15 Nisan: this is what they were “Preparing” for]|
|executed (no time specified)||15:25||Third hour they executed him (9am)||22:32||executed (no time specified)|
|27:45||The sixth hour (noon) darkness fell||15:33||Sixth hour darkness fell||23:44||Darkness at 6th hour (noon)||19:14||6th hr; behold your king|
|27:45,50||Ninth hour died||15:34,37||Ninth hour died (3pm)||23:44,48||Ninth hour died (3pm)||19:30||dies|
|15:42||Evening came before Preparation before Sabbath OF UNLEAVENED BREAD Gives us the date of 15 Aviv[Nisan] (lev 23:6) AFTER Pesakh [lev23:5]||23:54||Evening came before Preparation before Sabbath OF UNLEAVENED BREAD (lev 23:6) AFTER Pesakh [lev23:5]Morning came [Pharisees kill lamb on 14, but eat Passover that evening on 15 Nisan: this is what they were “Preparing” for]|
|23:56||Prepared aromatics and perfumed liquids BEFORE SabbathThis is before the “regular sabbath”, number 6 in timeline above|
|28:1||“Late Sabbath, evening, on the beginning of a Sabbaton (a high day) Bikkurim! He ROSE!||16:2||After elapsing the Sabbath, first of High Day [Bikkurim, the day after the Sabbath, lev 23:11] Wave offering and beginning of counting of Omer, another Sabbath.||24:1||One of the Sabbaths, deep at dawn, came to the tomb. RISEN!||20:1||On one of the Sabbaths, while dark, find Him gone!|
|16:9||Having risen on the first Sabbath (Of Omer?)||24:30||ate “lekhem”, but clearly still “unleavened”|